談吃飯的規矩(iciakan)

Table Manners

影片104

Video 10-4

曾喜悅 採集

Collected by Xi-yue Zeng

廖良娣 口述

Reported by Liang-ti Liao

董瑪女 記音翻譯

Transcribed and translated into Chinese by Maa-neu Dong

饒承恩 英文翻譯

Translated into English by Daniel Rau

96-

2007

 

1.si kaminan a icialaw nokakoa am,

  主格 阿姨     已故       以前      

no koman ko jira am, makma namen so sang(比蹲坐抱膝),

  吃飯     他們          我們  斜格 那樣

tosia  o  kma so sang(蹲坐挺胸),

不可以 主格 斜格 那樣

  [:每次我去阿姨(已經世了)的家裡吃飯時,要蹲坐著抱膝,不可以挺胸]

Every time I went to my (deceased) aunt’s house to eat, I had to stoop and hold my knees, and could not stick out my chest.

 

2.no koman namen am,

      吃飯   我們  

ji manodah do kananmaen no mehakay,  

      取用   處格  面前      屬格 男性  

a ji manodah do jito(指斜對面),

   取用   處格 那個

ta akma so abo pangasnesnekan,

     斜格 沒有 沒禮貌,沒家教

o kananmaen o tozoken,

主格  面前   主格  插刺

  [:吃飯的時候,不可以取用男人前面的食物,也不可以取那裡(旁人面前)

  的食物,因為這樣表示不禮貌,只能取用前面的食物吃]

When eating, one was not allowed to eat food that was placed before a man, and was not allowed to take food from there (in front of someone) because it was impolite. One could only eat food that was placed before him or her.

 

3.tana iheyoo o mian do jito(指左邊)a,

   即使  很想吃 主格 處格  那裡       

tana iheyoo o mian do jito(指右邊)am,

即使   很想吃 主格 處格 那裡        

ji paliktasa o tatari, 一定do kanenmaen, Ori a,

         越過   主格  叉子       處格    面前      那樣

  [:即使看到想吃靠左邊的或靠右邊的食物,但使用叉子不可越過旁人

  的眼前取食物,只能取用自己前面的食物]

Even if you see food that you want on your left or right, you must not use your fork to pick up food in front of someone else. One must only take the food that is placed before him or her.

 

4.no tozoken rana mo kakteh am, songiten,

            已經    同胞姊妹   

no songiten am, o  lima ya am, pakoanen so sang

             主格         要這樣  斜格 那樣

(比雙手擺在腳前), ji pivawa o ngoso, ori,

                     打開   主格      那樣

  [:取過食物,然後咬一口,咬完後,手要擺在腳前,不可以張口咀嚼]

After picking up the food, you would take a bite. After biting off, you would place your hands in front of your feet, and you could not chew with your mouth open.

 

5.ano minom so asoy am, asa ka cizop sia,

       斜格                

tosia  o  ipidoa, no ipidoa cizopen am,

不可以 主格 兩次       兩次           

o   mian do ngoso am, to mioli koan da,

主格   處格 口中        返回      他們

ipisa cizopen koan na.

一次              

  [:喝湯時只能喝一口, 不可以喝兩口,因若喝兩口,第一口湯會從口中倒

  回到湯裡面,所以只能喝一口湯]

When drinking soup, one would only take one sip. One should not take two sips because if you do that, then the first sip will be spilled back into the bowl. Therefore, one should only take one sip.

  

6.a no koman am, ji pizeziaka o iciciakan koan da,

  吃飯         出聲    主格    吃法        他們

ta no pizeziaken o iciciakan am, ji mangasnesnek,

     出聲      主格  吃法            禮貌,尊重

akmi ji ninanao no rarakeh koan da, ori,

                 屬格 老人        他們 那樣

  [:吃飯時,嘴巴不可以吃出聲音,否則不禮貌,好像沒有家教一樣]

When eating, one should not make any noise chewing because it is impolite and seems like one has no manners.

 

7.a ikongo ikakoan na sang(蹲坐) no koman? Ori am,

    什麼     會這樣    那樣        屬格 吃飯   那個 

kalikey no velek, Ori am, kalikey no velek,

  就很小 屬格 肚子    那樣     就很小 屬格 肚子

 [:為什麼要這樣蹲坐著吃飯呢? 因為這樣坐可以使肚子壓扁變小]

Why must you stoop like that to eat? It is because by sitting like that the stomach will be flattened.

  

8.:a o  malotoy ori am?

  主格 大肚子  那個

  [:懷孕的人怎麼辦?]

  What about pregnant women?

 

9.no malotoy am, makoan  so  sito(比兩腳一蹲一跪),

      大肚子      像這樣 斜格 那樣

  [:懷的人要這樣(兩腳一蹲一跪)]

  Pregnant women need to eat like this (kneel on one leg).

 

10.:a ji aingen saon o  ai na ori?

            會痛      主格   那個

  [:這樣坐腳會痛啊]

  But sitting like that their feet will hurt.

 

11.a  ji a-習慣, a ko ji animapineynara, 我也是這樣啊,

                        曾經這樣做過

  [:要習慣啊,以前我也曾經這麼坐啊]

  You just have to get used to it. I sat like that in the past.

 

12.:o   rako so lotoy  am, ji aingen saon o  ai ori?

      主格 大的  斜格 肚子                  主格 那個

  [:可是肚子已經很大的人,腳不痛嗎]

But for people who already have a big stomach, don’t their feet hurt?

 

13.a siciaikoa ya am, ya na toda kman sang a koman

       現在                     那樣    吃飯

(比兩腳合併彎曲往側邊而坐), ya na toda koan sang

                                           那樣

(比雙腳伸直席地而坐) a ya koman.

                          吃飯

  [:現在好多了,現在的孕婦吃飯都可以這樣(兩腳彎向側邊),也可以這

  (雙腳伸直)坐了]

It is much better now. Now, pregnant women can eat sitting like this (two legs on the side while sitting), or like this (two legs forward while sitting).

 

14.Ay~, ji ko nimakoan so sang no kawaz ko,

          像這樣  斜格 那樣    懷孕 

一定是makoan so sito(兩腳一蹲一跪) no koman ko,

         像這樣 斜格 那樣                  吃飯  

  [:,我懷孕時沒有那樣坐過,我都是這樣坐(兩腳一蹲一跪)]

Sigh, when I was pregnant I couldn’t sit like that. I always had to sit like this (kneeling on one leg).

 

15.am siciaikoa ya am, citaen ko rana jira ito am,

   現在                   已經  他們 那個 

apia rana, ta amian rana so lilisnan,

 很好 已經           已經 斜格  椅子

ta amian rana so 桌子 a akanan, do makma sang.

           已經 斜格       吃飯處  處格      那樣

  [:不過我看到現在的孕婦,他們好多了,因為已經有餐桌椅可以好好的

  吃飯了]

However, I have seen the pregnant women of the present. They have it much better because they have tables and chairs to sit at to eat already.

 

16.a no minom so asoy iya am, alikey o yopen,

         斜格           很小  主格 

ta katengan o kakoat na?

        知道   主格      

  [:喝湯的時候,要小小口,不然你怎麼知道它燙不燙呢?]

When drinking soup, you should take small sips. Otherwise, how are you going to know that it is hot?

 

17.ana, maniring si  ama ya,

                主格 父親   

asa ka tao a nimangay ji  ama ya am,

         ,   處格 父親       

yopen na ori  am, “tse~”這樣子am,

     那個                  

makoat am, “hea” koan na, to na ngoan am,

很燙                       吐掉   

o   kanen namen a yakan namen a nipamsitan na am,

主格      我們    吃菜  我們        噴出      

sino nikoman pa sia?

     吃了     

  [:,我父親曾說過,有一個人來找我父親, 喝湯時發出~”的聲音,

  可是才喝一口就的噴灑在我們的飯菜上; 後來還有誰敢吃那些食物啊?]

Hey, my father once said, there was a person who came to find my father. When the person drank soup, he made sipping sounds, but after just a sip he sprayed it all over the food. Who dared to eat the food then?

 

18.kakoan namen a makcin am,

     就算   我們     很餓    

to namen rana noroan do kois a kanen a,

     我們   已經      處格     ,  

ori manga anak ko  o pangileylamdaman no tao ya,

那樣 親愛的 孩子  主格       試探        屬格  

  [:雖然當時我們每個人都很餓,但是我們誰也不敢吃那些被噴口水的飯菜,

  只好拿去餵豬用,所以人才會想去試探人]

Even though we were all very hungry, no one dared to eat the food that had been sprayed with spittle, so we had to take it to feed the pigs. Therefore we want to tempt people.

 

19.no minom manga anak ko am, pakalikeyin, ta azimanen,

                  孩子        使很小          小心地

“ning a, ya apia ya, a ya mavaw” koan na am,

        很好      涼冷         

ori   o  pia manga anak ko,

    那樣 主格 很好         孩子

  [:喝水()的時候要小小口,要很小心,若說,不燙,可以放心喝”,

  這樣就比較好]

When drinking water (soup) you should take small sips and be careful. If you say, “Yes, this is not hot, you can safely drink it,” this is much better.

 

20.no mian so maci’ang’ang jiaten manga anak ko am,

         斜格   一起用餐     我們   親愛的  孩子   

no macita ko sira, nicizop da rana,

   看見   他們      已吸   他們 已經  

kapanizop da  pa am, ji ko na ngiyopi o niyopan da

  又吸     他們               主格 已喝過 他們

koan na, ta no ipidoa.., ipisa a ”tse~” koan na am,

            兩次       一次             

ori i, cia rana,

    那樣    可以  已經

  [:我父親還跟我說,如果有人來,且跟我們一起吃飯,我只要看到他們喝

  了一口又喝一口的情形,我就不再喝他喝過的湯,喝湯時只要”()一口

  就可以了]

My father also told me, if someone comes and eats with us, if I see that he or she is drinking sip after sip of the soup, then I should not drink the soup that they have drunk. When drinking soup, just one sip of soup is enough.

 

21.am “tse~”, 然後吞下, “tse~” koan na am,

                                        

ji namen rana maciyopi, ta, o mian pa do ngoso da am,

  我們   已經    ..喝湯    主格   處格     他們

mioli pa ori  do asoy iri, so ipisa cizopen koan na

 倒流    那個 處格    那個     一次             

ni  ama, ori manga anak ko.

屬格 父親 那樣         孩子

  [:但是喝了一口後,吞下去後又繼續喝第二口時,我們就不再喝他喝過的

  那一碗湯。因為,留在口中的湯會流回湯裡面,所以要喝湯時只能喝一口,

  父親這樣說]

However, if after the first sip, someone continues to take a second sip, we would no longer drink from the same soup bowl. This is because the soup that is still in the mouth will flow back into the bowl, so when drinking soup one should only take one sip at a time. This is what my father said.

 

22.ikong manga anak ko ji miyakani so asoy no manok?

 什麼          孩子       吃菜   斜格    屬格

ko ji miakani so asoy no among? 

     吃菜   斜格    屬格

ko ipangoat so cinoat? Ikapia no katawtao.

    燒開水 斜格  開水      使好  屬格  身體

ikacigzang no katawtao am, ji miingni no katawtao,

 使硬,變硬  屬格 本身,自己       生病       身體

ori o iwawalam na ni akay mo a icialaw,

那樣 主格  習慣   屬格 祖父     已故

[:為什麼我不喝雞湯,不喝魚湯? 為什麼我寧願煮開水喝開水? 因為

開水對對身體有益, 使身體變得硬朗(健康),不易生病。這就是你祖父

的生活習慣]    I

Why don’t I drink chicken or fish soup? Why am I more willing to boil and drink water? This is because water is good for the body. It makes the body solid (healthy) and helps keep you from getting sick. This is what your grandfather taught us.

 

23.si akay mo icialaw ya am, no mangay do takey am,

    主格 祖父    已做              處格 山上  

mangoat pa si akes mo a icialaw a, kavaw na sia,

  煮開水   主格 祖母    已故     且待涼 

o    royoy iri manga anak ko am, pasoikan na sia

主格 椰子缶 那個 親愛的   孩子        倒入     

ni akay  mo a icialaw o  rarako a royoy  ori, 

    屬格 祖父      已故  主格 大大的   椰子缶  那個

  [:你的祖父要上山時,你祖母都還要燒開水,待涼後,倒入大大的椰子殼

  的水容器裡,給你祖父帶上山去]

When your grandfather wanted to go into the mountains, your grandmother would always boil water. After it was cool, she would put it in a large coconut shell container for your grandfather to take into the mountains.

 

24.am ji ngian so toong na mo kakteh   no  royoy a,

          , 斜格 蓋子    同胞姊妹 屬格  椰子缶

   [:而且還做了蓋子呢 ]

  She would even make a cover.

 

25.:am ji ngiyopi so asoy no manok am,

            喝湯   斜格    屬格        

asoy  no among ang? A ma-很有營養 ang?

   屬格             很營養   

  [:這麼有營養的雞湯和魚湯都不喝嗎?]

Why don’t you drink chicken and fish soups that are so nutritious for you?

 

26.ji namen to gloan a, asoasoy no  ilek am,

      我們     倒掉      湯類   屬格 白毛 

to namen agloan saon am,  am ori ko nikaboang ori

  我們    倒掉           那樣     習慣     那個

mo kakteh,

      同胞姊妹

  [:連高級的白毛魚湯,我們都倒掉,我的習慣就是這樣   來的]

Even the highest quality gray rudderfish soup we pour out. This is where our custom comes from.

 

27.:ya mianeaneng saon o  ikoa no among ang?

            有油         主格 那個 屬格    

O   ikoa  o 豬肉ya miananeng, ta na kian no aneng na am,

主格 那個 主格       有油             屬格     

[:魚湯沒有油啊,不像豬肉本來就很油而煮起來會油油的]

Fish soup has no oil. It is not like pork that is already very oily and will make the water oily when cooked.

 

28.o   panci na jiaken ni ama icialaw ya,

   主格  告訴         屬格 父親 已故    

“imo rana ya manga anak ko,  

    已經           孩子 

na, no nikoman ka rana do vahay nio a,

      吃過了    已經 處格     你們

kayan no manci nimo am, kabsoy mo am,

 且有  屬格 邀請          且很飽  

to ka mangap so piniketeb a wakay,

         斜格   切半的     地瓜

no si ji ka mangap am, ikaoya da ori,

如果             很氣  他們 那樣

Ji da  nket o kankanen,

他們 敢吃 主格 食物

[:我父親跟我說, “你啊,如果吃過了飯,而有人請你吃飯,可是你已經

很飽時, 你就拿一塊切半的地瓜,若不拿吃,人家會生氣,而會被認為是嫌

棄他們的飯

My father told me, “You, after eating, if someone asks you over to eat, but you are already very full, you should take a half piece of sweet potato. If you don’t take some, people will be angry because they will think you are scorning their food.

 

29.no maniring sira am,

              他們   

“na ji anket o kanen namen ya an?

      敢吃 主格     我們  

taréta, amian so ji rana ngan do ipanci?”

 實在是       斜格 已經      處格 ,

koan da manga anak ko,

   他們      孩子   

ori 一定mangap pa so kanen a ipasta jira, ori a,

那樣           斜格        給人看 他們   那樣

[:他們會說,”他嫌棄我們的飯? ,不吃也不會意思意思一下?”所以

無論如何,一定要吃一點,要給人家面子]

They will say, “Is our food not good enough for him? Huh, he can’t even eat a little just for show?” Therefore, no matter what, you must eat some to give the people face.

 

30.”no ji nikoman pa do vahay manga anak ko a,

        吃過     處格            孩子   

kato makadasan sia, kato da mancian no  katawtao

      趕上             他們  ,   屬格 本身,自己

manga anak ko am, kakakan do vahay am,

       孩子       怎麼吃   處格    

kakakan do vahay da” koan na,

 怎麼吃  處格    他們     

[:如果在家裡還沒有吃過飯,而遇上人家吃飯時間,而邀請你吃飯時,

那就,在家吃多少,在別人家就吃多少]

If you have not eaten at home, it is meal time, and someone asks you over to eat, then you should eat as much as you would eat at home.

 

31.ta no mangay rana sira do vahay ori am,

            已經  他們 處格     那個

karo   no kanen do vahay ori am,

而很多 屬格      處格     那個  

no maniring sira  ori   o niangayan so vahay am,

           他們  那個 主格  去過的    斜格    

“asio ori?  No kayan na do vahay namen isio am,

  怎麼 那樣          處格      我們   那個 

apereh o kanen ..”

很少   主格 

[:因為, 如果有一天,人家到你家裡來吃飯, 看見你在家裡吃的比在

別人家裡吃的飯還多,人家就會說,“奇怪,在我們家時,他吃的很少,

..”]

This is because, if someday, someone comes to your house to eat and find that you eat more at home than you do outside at someone else’s house, they will say, “Weird, when you were at our house, he/she ate very little, but…”